~1539~   spanish explorers enters  arizona


Sinagua leave the Verde Valley


Both the Yavapai and Apache were semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers who migrated across large territories around the Verde Valley in search of wild game and plants. Agave was an essential resource that could be roasted in large pits and used through the winter when other food was scarce. Both groups occasionally farmed in selected sites, growing maize, beans, squash, and gourds. These two groups of people, having similar ways of life, often traded and intermarried. These mixed families would take their mother's ethnic identity and language. The cultural similarity between the Yavapai and Apache caused Anglo explorers to misidentify, or combine the two, into a single cultural identity for centuries.​



Sinagua Culture begins







   ~1200 ~   

First archaeological evidence of Yavapai in the Verde Valley


 ~1500 ~   

Apache Enter The Verde Valley

~ 1100 - 1350 ~

Sinagua Construct Pueblos - 

Montezuma Castle, Palatki, Honanki and others