Fort Whipple Founded




Fort Verde Founded


Fort McDowell Founded


Rio Verde Reservation Established


San Carlos Reservation Established


Exodus to San Carlos Reservation


The Yavapai or Tonto Wars

With the large influx of settlers occupying their lands, the Yavapai and Apache could no longer collect the food they needed to survive. This led to an increase in raiding livestock and other resources. In return, the Americans started a hostile policy towards all natives in the region. The U.S. Army enlisted the help of Pima and Maricopa Indians from the South to raid the Yavapai and Apache.


President Grant, in hopes to reduce the hostility in the West set out to create several reservations where the Natives could live and farm away from Anglo settlers. In 1871 the Rio Verde Reservation was created and all "roving Apache" had to move onto the reservation or be treated as hostile. The "Yavapai Wars" or "Tonto Wars" lasted from around 1871-1875, killing hundreds of men, women, and children.


In 1875, the original land set aside for the Rio Verde Reservation was rescinded and given back to public domain. General Crook, in his efforts to eliminate the Indian threat in the Verde Valley forcibly removed the remaining Yavapai and Apaches 180 miles away from their homelands to the San Carlos Reservation.‚Äč


Yavapai and Apache Begin to Return